Can You Help Save the Bees?

I am a beekeeper, and my well meaning friends keep sending me articles about the impending total loss of honey bees. A friend referred me to an article (sorry link no longer open) telling the reader he or she could help save bees by building an exotic bee hive in which the bees build honey comb in glass jars and fill the combs with honey. I found the design interesting, but doubt it will save many bees. To build the hive will require more than the steps shown. To maintain such a hive, one needs to have beekeeping skills to keep the colony alive and equipment to tend the hive without being stung. Bees glue everything in the hive together with propolis. Thus the average person is likely to have difficulty removing the jars from the hive, and will probably have difficulty harvesting the jars of honey. Without protective equipment, they will get badly stung in the process.

We are losing bees. I myself lost half my hives two winters ago, and there are reports that my county’s largest beekeeper lost 100 hives last year. I have yet to confirm that Ken lost 100 hives, but he probably lost a large number. Part of the reason I am a beekeeper is that my back lot neighbor lost all of his bees six winters ago, I noticed decline in pollination of my garden. At the same time he and his wife were preparing to move to Albuquerque so he was willing to sell all of his equipment to me. In the process of loading hive boxes into my truck, he discovered a single box with a lid, and bees flying in and out of the entrance. After taking a peek under the lid, he said, “You have a live one here. Come back at sundown and haul them to your yard.”

As the sun set, I used duct tape to close the entrance and hauled the box around the block to my back yard. This was indeed a colony of survivors. The next day when I opened the hive I found it infested with wax worms. The larvae of this blue moth love to munch on bees wax. This box had contained ten frames on which the bees drew comb. In these combs the bees raise larvae and pupae and store honey and pollen. The wax worms had destroyed seven frames and filled 70% of the box with debris. Considering that most colonies live in a hive made of two boxes, this colony was reduced to living in 15% of the space they expect to have to live in. I placed the three good frames and bees in a clean box and gave them seven new frames. My first colony of bees has served me well. I still have the descendants of that colony.

wax worms are only one predator that can wipe out a colony of bees. Bears, skunks, mice, yellow jacket hornets, and several species of mites pray on honey bees. Any of them can weaken if not destroy a colony of bees. In addition, there are a number of diseases that can kill bees. In addition to predators, diseases, and pesticides, poor management can cause the demise of a colony. Bees store honey as their winter food. Beekeepers are careful not to harvest too much food. In addition, most beekeepers provide supplementary food in the form of syrup to help the bees survive the winter. I suspect this contributed to my neighbor’s loss of bees. We had an unusually cold winter, and he had not been feeding them. He sold me no feeders. It is likely that at least some of his colonies ran out of food in the cold weather.

For centuries beekeepers have know about the hazards mentioned above, but we have many colonies that get wiped out without explanation. Many bee hives have been left empty by a syndrome known as sudden colony collapse disorder (SCC). Researchers are working hard to learn why some hives are suddenly empty without explanation. Perhaps the bees went elsewhere to die because no dead bees are left in the hive. Some researchers suspect that SCC is the result of a virus. SCC has raised the alarm because the results are so catastrophic.

Yes, there are enormous numbers of colonies of bees being lost every year, but as a beekeeper, let me assure you that the honey bee is not about to become extinct in the immediate future. At the same time that bee colonies are being lost, new colonies are being formed. Overcrowded colonies will swarm. When they swarm they leave the old hive with a new queen and half the bees. The swarm flies off with the old queen and the other half of the bees. Given the opportunity, the swarm will establish a new colony. Now we have two colonies where we once had one. Beekeepers often prevent a hive from swarming by moving half the bees to a new hive. The half without the queen will rear a new queen. This creates a new colony, and there are breeders who grow and sell queens to beekeepers like me who may want to start more colonies of bees.

There is no crisis of the proportion being predicted by the media, but bees need our protection. Their pollination services are vital to the production of many of our crops. While I think the “save the bees” lobby is trying to start panic, they do have a point. We do need to protect the bees and minimize the losses of colonies. Obviously the proper use of pesticides and even the banning of some pesticides will greatly help. Good bee husbandry practices are also called for. You can also participate in saving the bees.

You are probably not a beekeeper dressed in a bee suit with veil and gloves, but your participation is as important as mine when you do the following:

  1. Use pesticides with care. Some pesticides are deadly to bees. Do not use them on or around blooming plants. Choose your pesticides carefully and then follow the directions. Many pesticides do not injure bees when used properly.
  1. Do not reflexively spray bees with your favorite pesticide. The only bees actively trying to sting you are those guarding the entrance of a hive. Simply ignore bees randomly flying around your yard. If there are a large number of bees pestering you, look for the source. You may have a colony of bees living in a hollow tree or in the wall of your house, or a swarm may have come into your yard. Seek the help of a beekeeper.
  2. If you think you need to call an exterminator, ask him to refer you to beekeeper for bee removal. My friend, Jim, is a professional exterminator, but he only kills those bees that can not safely be removed. Primarily these are colonies high up in trees or in walls that can not be opened. For anything else, Jim refers them to me or to another beekeeper.
  3. Occasionally, you will find a swarm in your yard. A large number of bees may fly in with a loud buzz. They will land on a solid object like a tree branch and form a ball. Sometimes, you may not hear them come, but suddenly see a large cluster of bees hanging on something. What you see hanging there is a swarm of bees. Do not panic. Leave them alone. Do not spray them with anything. Call a beekeeper. Our local association of Beekeepers maintains a hotline and a list of people prepared to capture swarms. In addition each spring, I give memos to the 911 dispatch center and all police and fire stations in our county. I get a large number of swarm calls either from 911 dispatchers or from people who are told by a dispatcher to call me. The beekeeper will capture the swarm and install it in a hive in his bee yard. I catch swarms for free, but some beekeepers charge a nominal fee.
  4. If you discover bees living in the wall of your house or an outbuilding, call a beekeeper. They can remove the colony of bees and move it to a hive in a bee yard. This procedure is called a cut out because it is usually necessary to open up the wall. A cut out is a labor intensive procedure and is expensive. An exterminator may tell you it is cheaper to kill the bees, but if you want to save the bees, call a beekeeper.
  5. The last thing you want is a swarm moving into the wall of your house. I hang swarm traps around my yard. To a bee, a swarm trap looks like a furnished condo. Frequently a swarm will move into a trap if it is available. Unfortunately you need a beekeeper to relocate the bees from the trap into a hive. I lease swarm traps, and I am sure some other beekeepers do the same. My lease arrangements include my services to empty the trap each time they catch a swarm. If you are concerned about bees in your wall, look into leasing a swarm trap.

The bees can be saved by a concerted effort of beekeepers, researchers, environmentalists, exterminators, and people like you.

If you are interested in keeping bees and harvesting honey, my recommendation is to take a beekeeping course so you know what you are doing. Buy protective equipment to minimize the stings. Buy tools and hive components so you can keep your bees healthy. A “standard” bee hive will be easier to manage than the fancy hive talked about in the first paragraph. You may not be able to see the bees storing honey, but you will be able to harvest the honey more easily. Beekeeping is fun and will enable you to save bees. Of course, the honey you harvest is good tasting.

For information or advice about keeping bees, you may contact me through my web page,

I have added a Bee Page to my website. It is under construction, but stop by for a look at short articles about bees and pictures of bees.

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New Book in the Works

I have turned my manuscript of Stoned for His Faith over to Covenant Books for publication. The editor has finished his editorial review, and I have reviewed his editing. Of course, we have our differences of opinion, but only one area of significant disagreement about how we should handle handwritten notes that hero makes while unable to speak. Either way it is resolved, I expect the reader will understand that the hero is unable to speak because of his head injury, but can write notes. I do have to compliment the editor for several recommendations he or she made. Several of the recommendations enabled me to make some of my sentences better.

At the moment, there is no time schedule for publication, but I am pleased that this book is in process. Humble that I am, I think this is the best of my books so far. As with most of my books, I have written this book from a Christian perspective. Because the main characters include a pastor and an evangelist, I have the opportunity to gently expose the reader to Christian doctrine.

The plot involves a retired pastor who has written a book teaching Christians how to witness to Muslims. People who have the book are successful working with Muslims. When the book falls into the hands of a Muslim mullah, the mullah is enraged and sets out to find Randy, the retired pastor, and stone him. There is a lot of intrigue, danger and action. One teen is so timid he doesn’t want to play football. In the end, he becomes the hero of the day.

There is also a bit of romance to spice up the story. Randy is a widower. A woman from his former congregation plays matchmaker and throws three beautiful women his way.

When it comes out, I will let everyone know. In the mean time, look at to find out about those books that are already on the market.

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Swarm Season Is Here

My last post was about bees and bee swarms. Bees are not expected to swarm in New Mexico until mid to late April.

My bees apparently do not know how to read the calendar. Yesterday two of my hives swarmed and it is still March. I think they have been fooled by the unseasonably warm weather and the abundance of fruit trees blooming.

Swarming bees leave the hive in a group. If the swarm is large enough, it looks like a river of bees in the sky, and the sound can get rather loud.

Yesterday in the afternoon, my wife came in from the back yard all excited. She said the backyard was full of bees going crazy. She had seen a swarm departing, apparently from one of my hives. They took off, and we do not know where they went. Then I went out to do some gardening and heard a loud buz. I walked toward a group of three hives and saw bees rising in a cloud from a hive. As I watched, they started moving south. I attempted to determine their direction of flight so that I could follow them. I walked to the other side of a plum tree. Suddenly, I could hear them, but I could see no bees. Closer inspection of the tree showed the bees were forming up on a branch of the plum tree.

Unlike the first swarm that had taken off and flown out of sight, the second swarm flew less than 50 feet (15 meters) from their hive to the plum tree. I waited until most of the swarming bees had either landed on the branch or on another bee. A small number of bees were still flying around the branch as though deciding where to land.

Meanwhile I brought my swarm equipment out of storage and made up some sugar water. This closer shot of the swarm shows how the bees are in a cluster on the branch with the queen somewhere near the center. I began by spraying the bees with the sugar water. This makes it difficult for the bees to fly. Then using a soft brush, I brushed the bees off the branch into a large box. One all the bees were in the box, I put a lid on it and carried it to where I wanted the new hive to be. There, I set up a new hive. I made sure most of the frames had at least a little wax on them and a few were almost completely covered with empty comb.

I brushed the bees from the box, into the hive. Now I have a new colony of bees. Unfortunately, the old hive and the new hive are at half strength. The colony will have to raise more worker bees and thus will produce little, if any, surplus honey for me this year.

Two of my hives have swarmed. The good news is that there are now two more colonies of bees than there were on Wednesday, and one of them is safely housed in a hive on my property. The bad news is that the first swarm probably waited on a branch in someone’s yard over night while the scouts were searching for a new home. Days have been warm, but nights have been cool. Thursday night the temperature dropped to 40 F (5 C). At that temperature, they may not have survived the night. Perhaps clustered tightly together, body heat may have kept many of them alive, but certainly the outer layer would have been at risk. Fortunately, I captured the second swarm and located them in a hive box where they were sheltered from the wind and could use their body heat more effectively to keep warm.

Do not be afraid of a swarm of bees. Call a bee keeper or call 911. Most 911 dispatchers have a list of available bee keepers. By calling a bee keeper, you can help save bees. While you are waiting, observe the swarm carefully. You may learn something. You may even want to keep bees yourself.

Reynold Conger is a bee keeper. If you have any questions about bees, go to his web page where there is a form for contacting him. If you become interested in keeping bees, contact him for information about how you can keep bees.

Reynold Conger is also an author. go to his web page for information about the books he writes.

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Save the Bees


There is a great deal of talk about save our bees . Indeed, we need to protect our bees because they are beneficial. The majority of our crops require pollination by insects, and bees are among the best pollinators. As individuals, bumble bees are probably the best pollinators, but honey bees rank very high in the numbers of plants pollinated. This is because there are so many bees and they service a large number of flowers. If we were to lose our honey bees, our food supply would be cut drastically and would be limited to only a few foods.

The good news is that there is no reason to believe that we might lose our bees within a short time, but we need to protect bees now while they are plentiful.

There have always been dangers to bee colonies. One winter I lost half my hives to cold and mice. An earlier winter, my neighbor, a serious bee keeper with 30 active hives, was wiped out by an unusually cold winter. Bees have predators ranging from bears to mice to microscopic mites. The larger predators destroy hives physically or eat the larvae. The very small predators attack individual bees, but this weakens the colony. Bees also have diseases that can weaken a colony or even destroy it. Very cold weather can kill larvae directly or can simply cause a colony to run out of food.

More recently, bees have been at risk because of sudden colony collapse (SCC) or colony collapse disorder (CCD). Hives with with strong colonies suddenly are empty without signs of a large die off of bees or any signs of disease or predator attack. Researchers suspect it might be a virus, but they are still working on the syndrome. There have been efforts to quarantine the shipment of bees from regions with high incidence of SCC. A few geographic regions have lost almost all of their bees, presumably due to SCC. This is a problem, but not yet a catastrophic epidemic. Some researchers have found clues to prevention of SCC.

Insecticides also put bees at risk. Bees can tolerate some insecticides, but others are highly toxic to them. We need to be careful to only use insecticides according to directions, and never by random application.

Related to this is the increase in genetically modified organisms (GMO). Some GMO plants are more vigorous because the GMO plant has the ability to generate its own insecticides. In some cases this is not a threat to bees, but other plants generate compounds that kill bees. Some established bee keepers have had to move their hives because of large losses of bees when neighbors plant certain GMO crops. The use of GMO crops needs to be investigated closer.

While it is popular to be politically active against insecticides and GMO plants, the biggest impact an individual can have on the bee population is to report swarms. A bee keeper can easily capture a swarm of bees and install them into a hive to become productive bees.

Swarming is nature’s way of protecting bee colonies from overcrowding, and at the same time increasing the number of bee colonies.

Each colony had one and only one queen. She is the only bee in the colony who can lay eggs and will lay up to 2000 eggs a day. If a queen dies, the colony faces extinction, but worker bees have the ability to feed large amounts of royal jelly to extremely young larvae. As a result they grow into queens. Typically, when a colony loses its queen, a half a dozen or more queen larvae are started. The first one to hatch, kills the rest and becomes queen.

A colony swarms when it becomes overcrowded in whatever shelter it uses for a hive. By some signal humans are not aware of, the workers start queen larvae as though the queen had died. Then about a week before the new queen hatches, the old queen departs with about half of the population of the hive. They fill their stomachs with honey and fly, as a hoard, a short distance, 100 yards to ¼ mile and rest. Typically they rest on a tree limb but any surface will do. The bees cling together into a ball with the queen safely tucked in the middle. These bees are primarily busy trying to stay together and to protect the queen. While swarming, the bees seldom sting unless directly provoked. They will rest in a swarm formation for up to 36 hours. During this time the bees can be swept into a box and carried off. This should be done by a bee keeper who will then put them in an empty hive box in his beeyard where they can take up residence.

Far too many people panic and spray the swarm with insecticide thinking the bees might attack them. Here is where the public can SAVE THE BEES. Simply leave the bees alone and call for a bee keeper. Local bee keeper associations keep lists of bee keepers prepared to collect swarms. Each spring I send memos to police departments and to the 911 dispatch center. If you do not know the name of a bee keeper or the phone number of your local bee keeper’s association, call 911. I get about half of my calls through the 911 dispatchers.

While waiting for a bee keeper, stand back a respectful distance and watch the show. Some bees will fly off the cluster and return after a very short flight. Others will move a short distance causing the cluster of bees to change shape. Keep other people away from the swarm, and be on the lookout to help guide the bee keeper to the swarm. The bee keeper will sweep the entire swarm into a collection box. If he is successful in capturing the queen, most of those bees who did not get swept into the box will follow the box, many sitting on the outside all the way back to my bee yard.

Some bee keepers charge a nominal fee. I am told I should charge $35 for my services, but I am glad to obtain a new colony of bees, and some of my clients are of limited means so I charge no fee. In any event, by calling a bee keeper, you have protected a colony of bees from being killed.

While the swarm of bees is resting, a small number of scout bees are looking for a new home for the colony. If the swarm is not collected by a bee keeper, the entire swarm will take to wing and follow the scout to the location the scout has found. It may be a hollow tree, a hole in a wall, or a box with an opening. There they will establish a hive for the colony.

A problem occurs when the colony moves into a hole in the wall of a building such as a residence. Generally people do not appreciate bees flying in and out of a hole in their house. Once the hive is established guard bees at the entrance are more than prepared to sting people they see as a threat. Exterminators will kill the colony for a fee of several hundred dollars. For a slightly larger fee, one can hire a bee keeper who is prepared to remove the colony alive. Unfortunately, there is usually the need to open a wall which results in further costs. This is another way to save the bees.

Rather than run the risk of bees residing where they do not belong, I build swarm traps. This is a box that has all the attributes the scout bees are looking for. I have observed scout bees looking at the swarm trap. A few hours later, the box will be alive with activity as the bees settle in. When there is activity in one of my swarm traps, I dump the bees into a modern bee hive and have a new colony of bees in my beeyard. I have trapped as many as three swarms in a single season in the trap near my back door.

I lease traps to people and businesses in my locality who do not want to be invaded by bees. When activity is visible in the trap, I service it. I am willing to share the design upon request, but be aware that a swarm trap is of limited usefulness unless there is a bee keeper to service it.

To save the bees, become politically active if you have the talent, but everyone can help save the bees by reporting swarms. Each time a swarm of bees is collected by a bee keeper or caught in a trap, that colony is given a high probability to become a productive colony.

Long live the Queen bee.

Swarming season in New Mexico is usually April through June, but I have seen swarms as early as mid March and as late as mid August. Please be prepared to observe and report swarms. Further north, add a month for states like Kansas and add 2 months for Wisconsin.

Requests about a swarm trap or about bee keeping may be sent using the reply feature on his website,

Reynold Conger is a retired scientist, engineer and teacher who gardens and keeps bees. He also writes fiction. His books are available through on line book stores. For information about Reynold’s books, see

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First Person Plural

In theory one can write a book or story in any combination of voice and tense. Some combinations work well, and others are difficult to keep from being awkward. We usually write In third person past tense, or first person past tense. Third person works well when we are acting as a narrator telling someone else’s story. First person works very well when we are telling something about our self. Usually the story has happened, so past tense is a natural way to tell the story. We could use future tense or even present tense, but it won’t work as well, even for the best of authors.

Most scholars say that second person can not be used, but I know of at least one book written in second person. The technique worked, but not very well. First person plural, however is a viable option. The problem is that few of us are used to using “we” continuously.

My grandfather had five children, one of whom was living in India with her husband. He felt it would be helpful to have a family news letter. Every Sunday afternoon, he would prepare The Sunday Snooze. Only recently did a cousin inform me that it was a pun for “The Sunday’s News”.

At that time, one could purchase an aerogram for about half the price of an airmail stamp. This was a piece of light weight paper with postage printed on one side. One could write as much as possible on the paper, fold it, and mail it, but you could not send any enclosures. Grandpa would alternate sheets of carbon paper and sheets of manifold paper.. Manifold paper was the light weight paper then used by secretaries to make carbon copies. He placed the stack of carbon paper and manifold paper on the aerogram and crank the stack of paper into his typewriter. He would type a one page news letter and mail out a copy to each family.

The typed copy would be the aerogram to Aunt Wilma and Uncle Charles. Everyone else got a carbon copy. Originally there were five copies, or perhaps as many as seven if he sent copies to other relatives. My grandfather also had 14 grandchildren. As each of us married, he added another carbon and sheet of paper so that us married grandchildren could get our own copies. Fortunately he went into a retirement home before too many of us married. I do not know how he got all of that paper into his typewriter as it was.

I am now the patriarch of the family and decided to resume publication of The Sunday Snooze in the form of a group e-mail. A copy goes to each of my relatives and one to each of my wife’s relatives. I write it in first person plural because it involves news of the both of us, and sometimes items about other relatives. I write most of it with my wife adding a sentence or paragraph here and there as she proof reads it.

I found myself in deep distress. In the middle writing, “We went to the gym. . .”,I kept finding myself slipping into the use of singular pronouns. It is terrible to be talking about what we did and then say I did such. My English teacher would certainly have marked that down for not using the same tense for the entire paragraph or more. Of course, I have to go back and replace I with Reynold and She with Gay. It is frustrating, but probably good practice.

I recently wrote a book length manuscript about a future king of England who falls in love with the last remaining unmarried royal princes. Unfortunately she is not the kind of woman he should marry, and their relationship causes all kinds of tension in the book. At one point he tries to resolve some of the tensions by having a meeting with some of his adversaries. He is advised to remain very formal because formality will give him, the king, a psychological advantage. Centuries ago, the monarchs of England began the practice of referring to themselves in first person plural when seated on the throne for formal state occasions. For example the king might say, “We have read a report of the situation, and we are not pleased! We have determined the act to be treasonous, and upon conviction, we will order the crown prosecutor to ask for capital punishment.”

So here is this future king who is used to talking much like any commoner, and his advisers have recommended that he sit on the royal throne and speak about himself in first person plural. As with the family letter, I struggled with the dialogue. It was hard, but it was fun. The king certainly had a psychological advantage when he thundered, “We are not pleased!”

Most of the time we write in third person singular and occasionally in first person singular. If you are an author, consider trying to write something in first person plural or even in third person plural. It may not be anything worth publishing, but it should expand your writing skills.

Reynold Conger is a retired scientist and teacher. In his retirement he writes fiction. For information about his books go to

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Book Launched

My latest book as been launched as an e-book.bones-cover

I have been writing a series of novellas, The Richard Tracy Series. They are all available only as e-books. Book 3 of the series, Dem Bones Shall Rise Again is now on the market on the following websites: Amazon, Barnes & Nobel, Google, Indigo (Canadian), and Fnac (France).

These novelas feature Richard Tracy, a retired detective and Mary Beth Austin, a retired chef. They are senior citizens and avid gardners but don’t let any moss grow on them.

Book 1 is A Dangerous Bike Ride. Richard and Mary Beth meet during the Texas MS 150 bike ride. Sparks fly and they promise to keep in touch, but there is an explosion at the finish line. Richard is injured and Mary Beth is carried off by her ex-husband. Richard must find and rescue his lady love.

Book 2 is Gone Running and Gone. Mary Beth moves to an apartment near Richard’s house. Together they plant a large garden in Richard’s yard. They marry in the middle of Spring. Richard has been training to run a marathon. Mary Beth provides support and encouragement from her mountain bike, but suddenly, Richard disappears. Mary Beth must work with the state police to rescue Richard.

Book 3 is Dem Bones Shall Rise Again. Theodore, the dog next door keeps digging under Richard’s fence where Richard is digging a trench to lay pipe. WDSC03260
hen Theodore digs up a human bone, the trouble starts. Because it appears Richard may have buried the body, he becomes a murder suspect. In the end it is Theodore who catches the murderer.

More about this book and other books by Reynold Conger can be found
on his website,

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Enough! Children Play Together Nicely

As long as we have had elections, we have had division after the election. In our presidential elections, a 5% margin of victory is considered a landslide, so after each election we have almost half of the voters disappointed by the outcome.

Historically, the winners have cheered and the losers have licked their wounds. Usually within a few days of the election, almost everyone in the nation is pulling together. There have been many elections where the candidate I supported lost, but I have accepted the winning candidate because he is the new president. For better or worse, he is the leader of our country for the next four years.

This year is a little different. Mr. Trump won, but there are a large number of Mrs. Clinton’s supporters who are sore losers. Since the election there have been many liberals who refuse to interact politely with Trump supporters. Case in point is the restaurant in Hawaii who will not serve Trump supporters. This is only one of the more recent examples. In some cases Trump supporters have been assaulted.

Such behavior is simply juvenile. It is like a child throwing checkers around the room just because his or her opponent wantsto play with the red checkers (the pouting child’s favorite color). Usually in that case a parent says, “Children! Play together nicely.” Even after the game is over and the loser throws a temper tantrum, the parent says the same thing.

The behavior of these people throwing tantrums because their champion lost is childish. It is not appropriate for adults, and a requirement for voting is the voter must be an adult.

The election is over. The results are final. All of the protests and anger against people who voted for the other candidate accomplish nothing. The losers will accomplish more if they simply say, “I don’t approve of this man or woman, but he or she is our president.” After all, every government needs its “loyal opposition”. We need men and women who remain loyal Americans and who work with the government in power to run the country even though they do not agree with the government.

The loyal opposition has the following responsibilities: (1) Avoid obstructing the legal operation of the government bodies such as happened when Wisconsin legislators of the minority party boycotted sessions in an attempt to block a bill they did not like. (2) Legislators of the minority party are obligated to point out provisions of bills that they believe are detrimental to the country or to segments of the population. (3) They are obligated to offer amendments that will help to mitigate the problems pointed out under item 2. The loyal opposition is there to prevent the majority party from simply ramming their agenda through without giving some consideration to the concerns of the minority party.

What about the average citizen? If the average citizen is a member of the loyal opposition, they are obligated to write to their congressmen and senators when there is a bill before Congress that they oppose. Likewise, they are obligated to write to the White House with their opposition when the president is preparing to sign a bill or make an appointment.

The election results are final. Children! Play together nicely. There is an election every four years. Next time your candidate may win.

Reynold Conger is an author. Learn about his books at

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